Eat more of healthy unsaturated fats to reduce risk of type 2 diabetes Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled feeding trials published July 19, 2016 in PLoS Medicine indicate that substituting dietary carbohydrates with saturated fat does not have a favorable effect on blood glucose. While, substituting carbohydrate and saturated fat with a diet rich in unsaturated fats (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats) led to better control of blood sugar. And, compared to carbohydrates, saturated fats or MUFA, the most consistent favorable effects were observed with PUFA as evident by the improved glycemia, insulin resistance and insulin secretion capacity. The trial summarized findings of 102 randomized controlled trials, which included 4,660 participants. · Replacing 5% energy from carbohydrate with saturated fats had no significant effect on fasting, but lowered fasting insulin. · Replacing carbohydrate with MUFA lowered HbA1c, 2 h post-challenge insulin and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). · Replacing carbohydrate with PUFA significantly lowered A1c and fasting insulin. · Replacing saturated fats with PUFA significantly lowered glucose, A1c, C-peptide, and HOMA. Major organizations recommend replacing saturated fats with MUFA or PUFA, mainly to improve lipid profiles rather than glucose-insulin metrics, for the primary and secondary prevention of diabetes. These findings suggest that eating more unsaturated fats in place of carbohydrates or saturated fats may improve glycemic control and focusing on PUFA in particular may have additional benefits on insulin secretion capacity.