Saturday, 5 March 2016

5% weight reduction all that matters in obesity

5% weight reduction all that matters in obesity

New Delhi, March 4, 2016: People with obesity who reduce their weight by 5% will have improvements in metabolic function in many tissues, including fat, liver, and muscle. Further weight loss of 10 to 15% results in additional improvements. India is ranked as the third most obese country in the world and obesity is a leading contributor of heart disease. Given that 13% Indians are found to be suffering from obesity, the country faces a major risk of a heart disease epidemic.

With the rising body mass of Indians especially the urban youth, the incidence of premature heart disease also continues to increase. Obesity contributes to the deposition of a wax-like substance also known as plaque, in the coronary arteries, which in turn chokes the oxygen and blood circulation to the heart. Eventually, these blockages trigger heart attacks and sudden cardiac arrests.

Obese individuals are also at a high risk of hypertension or high blood pressure, which also puts additional pressure on the heart deterring it from functioning normally and exhausting it before time. It also results in the reduction of the good cholesterol levels in one's body and increases the LDL. High levels of bad cholesterol are direct causes of a rise in the heart disease risk amongst people below the age of 40.

Speaking about the same, Dr SS Agarwal, National President IMA & Padma Shri Awardee Dr KK Aggarwal, President HCFI and Honorary Secretary General IMA said, “Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and heart disease. These health issues stem from underlying metabolic abnormalities that affect the liver, pancreas, muscle, fat, and other tissues. It is recommend that people who are overweight or obese aim to lose 5% to 10% of their weight to achieve improvements in health”.

A NIHHK /NIH study conducted at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, randomly assigned 40 sedentary people with obesity to maintain their body weight or to go on a diet to lose 5% of their body weight, followed by targets of 10% and 15%. Nineteen achieved the initial target of 5% weight loss after about 3.5 months. These people had significantly decreased body fat, including abdominal fat and fat in the liver. They had decreased plasma levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and leptin. They also showed improved function of insulin-secreting β cells, as well as the ability of fat, liver, and muscle tissue to respond to insulin.

Markers of inflammation are elevated in people with obesity. The researchers, however, found no changes in systemic or fat tissue markers of inflammation with 5% weight loss.
One can determine if they are obese by the size of their waist, the ratio of their waist to their hips, and the relationship between their height and weight.  This last measure is known as the Body Mass Index (BMI).  As a person’s BMI increases, so does their risk of heart disease and stroke.

If a person’s BMI is greater than 22, they are considered to be overweight. A BMI greater than 21 in women can adversely affect their heart’s health. A person with a BMI greater than 30 is obese and at serious risk of cardiovascular disease. Research reveals that 58% of diabetes and 21% of ischemic heart disease cases are attributable to a BMI above 21.

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